By and Bi


When the industry was preparing to transition to lead-free solders almost ten years ago (can it have been that long), tin-bismuth solders were serious candidates. Their low melting point, of about 138C, made these solders interesting candidates to replace tin-lead solder. However, if contaminated with lead, tin-bismuth solders can produce a eutectic phase that melts at 96C. In such situations the resulting solder joint exhibits poor performance in thermal cycle testing. Since early in the transition to lead-free solders it was expected that there would be numerous components and PWBs with lead-based surface finishes, this property made tin-bismuth solders unacceptable.

Another aspect of tin-bismuth solders is that they expand on cooling. This phenomenon can result in fillet lift in through-hole solder joints.

However, as we are now well into 2011, almost no components or PWBs have lead-containing finishes and many portable electronic devices have no through-hole components, so it may be time to reconsider tin-bismuth for some applications.

Some years ago, Hewlett Packard (HP) had performed work to show that adding 1% silver to tin-bismuth solder enabled this alloy to outperform eutectic tin-lead solder in 0 to 100C thermal cycle testing. Even at these low reflow temperatures, HP demonstrated solder joint strength with SAC BGA solder balls that was 65% that of tin-lead solder. Expanding on this work, Indium’s Ed Briggs and Brook Sandy performed stencil printing and reflow experiments consistent with the requirements of current miniaturized components using this 57Bi-42Sn-1Ag solder. All their results were promising. Ed presented a paper at SMTA Toronto that summarized the Hewlett Packard work and reviewed the results of this new work.

Bismuth solders tend to be brittle, so applications experiencing drop shock should be avoided.

So for applications consistent with 0-100C thermal cycling, 57Bi-42Sn-1Ag solder may be something to consider if the high temperature of SAC solder paste is an issue to components or PWBs in a product.


Dr. Ron

On Pb-Free Reliability and its Doubters

I was at SMTAI (Surface Mount Technology Association International) in late September. As mentioned, I chaired a session on Alternative Alloys. At this session, Greg Henshall presented a paper on the Low Silver BGA Sphere Metallurgy Project. This paper was a collaborative effort of six companies. In addition, Richard Coyle presented an overview of the work of three companies titled “The Effect of Silver Content on the Solder Joint Reliability of a Pb-free PBGA Package.” Both projects evaluated lead-free thermal cycle reliability as a function of silver content and compared the results to SnPb reliability.

Both papers concluded that as far as thermal cycle reliability is concerned

SnPb < SAC105 < SAC305 < SAC405

Coyle’s paper summed it best:

Each of the SAC alloys outperformed the SnPb eutectic alloy in every test, including the long, 60 min. dwell time test. This tends to diminish the argument that SAC is less reliable than SnPb. (See Coyle’s figure. Data curves to the right are more reliable.)

Henshall’s paper also showed that the addition of dopants, to improve shock resistance, in SAC105 does not reduce thermal cycle life.

So, it appears, at this time, that, from a thermal cycle and drop shock perspective, it is looking more and more like SAC-based solders out perform SnPb solders in these two reliability arenas.

At the end of the session a noted lead-free curmudgeon came over to introduce himself.  We have had a jovial disagreement on several blogs, etc., in the past re: lead-free status and issues, but had not met in person. I should mention that this person is a college graduate, a former technical leader at several influential technological companies, and he owns a PE license. I asked him what he now thought about lead-free reliability after hearing the talks. He claimed that he is a little less likely to think that Pbfree reliability is a disaster. He still refuses to purchase lead-free products. He buys old units (pre-2006) on eBay.

I mentioned that over $2 trillion of electronics has been placed in the field since 2006 with no unusual reliability issues. I then went on to say that a RoHS-compliant product is much more likely to fail due to a non-RoHS related issue. He did not disagree. So then I asked him why he won’t use RoHS compliant electronics. His answer: “I just don’t trust them.”


Dr. Ron